Faster and more accurate geometrical-optics optical force calculation using neural networks
Optical forces are often calculated by discretizing the trapping light beam into a set of rays and using geometrical optics to compute the exchange of momentum. However, the number of rays sets a trade-off between calculation speed and accuracy. Here, we show that using neural networks permits one to overcome this limitation, obtaining not only faster but also more accurate simulations. We demonstrate this using an optically trapped spherical particle for which we obtain an analytical solution to use as ground truth. Then, we take advantage of the acceleration provided by neural networks to study the dynamics of an ellipsoidal particle in a double trap, which would be computationally impossible otherwise.
Dynamic live/apoptotic cell assay using phase-contrast imaging and deep learning
Caroline B. Adiels
Chemical live/dead assay has a long history of providing information about the viability of cells cultured in vitro. The standard methods rely on imaging chemically-stained cells using fluorescence microscopy and further analysis of the obtained images to retrieve the proportion of living cells in the sample. However, such a technique is not only time-consuming but also invasive. Due to the toxicity of chemical dyes, once a sample is stained, it is discarded, meaning that longitudinal studies are impossible using this approach. Further, information about when cells start programmed cell death (apoptosis) is more relevant for dynamic studies. Here, we present an alternative method where cell images from phase-contrast time-lapse microscopy are virtually-stained using deep learning. In this study, human endothelial cells are stained live or apoptotic and subsequently counted using the self-supervised single-shot deep-learning technique (LodeSTAR). Our approach is less labour-intensive than traditional chemical staining procedures and provides dynamic live/apoptotic cell ratios from a continuous cell population with minimal impact. Further, it can be used to extract data from dense cell samples, where manual counting is unfeasible.
Study of out-of-plane rotations in optical tweezers and applications in soft matter and biological systems
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India Date: 24 May 2023 Time: 12:30 Place: Nexus
A rigid body can have 6 degrees of freedom, namely the three translational degrees of freedom and the three rotational degrees of freedom. Of these, the translational degrees have been well explored in optical tweezers community. However, only the in-plane rotational degree of freedom has been explored. We call this in-plane degree of rotational freedom, the yaw motion in the nomenclature of the airlines. The pitch and roll degrees are only beginning to be explored recently.
In this talk, I will show you 4 ways of generating pitch rotation using the optical tweezers. I will also show you one way of detection of pitch rotation at high resolution using birefringent particles. Further, I will discuss some applications of this pitch rotation in soft matter systems and biology. I will also show you a few other projects that we are working on inside the lab.
Basudev Roy got his MSc from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and MS from the University of Maryland, College Park. He got his PhD from Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata in 2015. He was an Alexander von Humboldt fellow at the University of Tuebingen, Germany for his postdoctoral research from 2015 to 2017. He joined Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India since 2017 where he is now an Associate Professor.
Video microscopy has a long history of providing insights and breakthroughs for a broad range of disciplines, from physics to biology. Image analysis to extract quantitative information from video microscopy data has traditionally relied on algorithmic approaches, which are often difficult to implement, time consuming, and computationally expensive. Recently, alternative data-driven approaches using deep learning have greatly improved quantitative digital microscopy, potentially offering automatized, accurate, and fast image analysis. However, the combination of deep learning and video microscopy remains underutilized primarily due to the steep learning curve involved in developing custom deep-learning solutions. To overcome this issue, we have introduced a software, currently at version DeepTrack 2.1, to design, train and validate deep-learning solutions for digital microscopy.
Video microscopy has a long history of providing insights and breakthroughs for a broad range of disciplines, from physics to biology. Image analysis to extract quantitative information from video microscopy data has traditionally relied on algorithmic approaches, which are often difficult to implement, time consuming, and computationally expensive. Recently, alternative data-driven approaches using deep learning have greatly improved quantitative digital microscopy, potentially offering automatized, accurate, and fast image analysis. However, the combination of deep learning and video microscopy remains underutilized primarily due to the steep learning curve involved in developing custom deep-learning solutions.
To overcome this issue, we have introduced a software, currently at version DeepTrack 2.1, to design, train and validate deep-learning solutions for digital microscopy. We use it to exemplify how deep learning can be employed for a broad range of applications, from particle localization, tracking and characterization to cell counting and classification. Thanks to its user-friendly graphical interface, DeepTrack 2.1 can be easily customized for user-specific applications, and, thanks to its open-source object-oriented programming, it can be easily expanded to add features and functionalities, potentially introducing deep-learning-enhanced video microscopy to a far wider audience.
Light carries energy and momentum. It can therefore alter the motion of objects from atomic to astronomical scales. Being widely available, readily controllable and broadly biocompatible, light is also an ideal tool to propel microscopic particles, drive them out of thermodynamic equilibrium and make them active. Thus, light-driven particles have become a recent focus of research in the field of soft active matter. In this perspective, we discuss recent advances in the control of soft active matter with light, which has mainly been achieved using light intensity. We also highlight some first attempts to utilize light’s additional degrees of freedom, such as its wavelength, polarization, and momentum. We then argue that fully exploiting light with all of its properties will play a critical role to increase the level of control over the actuation of active matter as well as the flow of light itself through it. This enabling step will advance the design of soft active matter systems, their functionalities and their transfer towards technological applications.
Roadmap for optical tweezers
Giovanni Volpe, Onofrio M Maragò, Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Giuseppe Pesce, Alexander B Stilgoe, Giorgio Volpe, Georgiy Tkachenko, Viet Giang Truong, Síle Nic Chormaic, Fatemeh Kalantarifard, Parviz Elahi, Mikael Käll, Agnese Callegari, Manuel I Marqués, Antonio A R Neves, Wendel L Moreira, Adriana Fontes, Carlos L Cesar, Rosalba Saija, Abir Saidi, Paul Beck, Jörg S Eismann, Peter Banzer, Thales F D Fernandes, Francesco Pedaci, Warwick P Bowen, Rahul Vaippully, Muruga Lokesh, Basudev Roy, Gregor Thalhammer-Thurner, Monika Ritsch-Marte, Laura Pérez García, Alejandro V Arzola, Isaac Pérez Castillo, Aykut Argun, Till M Muenker, Bart E Vos, Timo Betz, Ilaria Cristiani, Paolo Minzioni, Peter J Reece, Fan Wang, David McGloin, Justus C Ndukaife, Romain Quidant, Reece P Roberts, Cyril Laplane, Thomas Volz, Reuven Gordon, Dag Hanstorp, Javier Tello Marmolejo, Graham D Bruce, Kishan Dholakia, Tongcang Li, Oto Brzobohatý, Stephen H Simpson, Pavel Zemánek, Felix Ritort, Yael Roichman, Valeriia Bobkova, Raphael Wittkowski, Cornelia Denz, G V Pavan Kumar, Antonino Foti, Maria Grazia Donato, Pietro G Gucciardi, Lucia Gardini, Giulio Bianchi, Anatolii V Kashchuk, Marco Capitanio, Lynn Paterson, Philip H Jones, Kirstine Berg-Sørensen, Younes F Barooji, Lene B Oddershede, Pegah Pouladian, Daryl Preece, Caroline Beck Adiels, Anna Chiara De Luca, Alessandro Magazzù, David Bronte Ciriza, Maria Antonia Iatì, Grover A Swartzlander Jr
Journal of Physics: Photonics 2(2), 022501 (2023)
Optical tweezers are tools made of light that enable contactless pushing, trapping, and manipulation of objects, ranging from atoms to space light sails. Since the pioneering work by Arthur Ashkin in the 1970s, optical tweezers have evolved into sophisticated instruments and have been employed in a broad range of applications in the life sciences, physics, and engineering. These include accurate force and torque measurement at the femtonewton level, microrheology of complex fluids, single micro- and nano-particle spectroscopy, single-cell analysis, and statistical-physics experiments. This roadmap provides insights into current investigations involving optical forces and optical tweezers from their theoretical foundations to designs and setups. It also offers perspectives for applications to a wide range of research fields, from biophysics to space exploration.
An Anomalous Competition: Assessment of methods for anomalous diffusion through a community effort
Nordita, Stockholm, 15 March 2023, 14:00
Deviations from the law of Brownian motion, typically referred to as anomalous diffusion, are ubiquitous in science and associated with non-equilibrium phenomena, flows of energy and information, and transport in living systems. In the last years, the booming of machine learning has boosted the development of new methods to detect and characterize anomalous diffusion from individual trajectories, going beyond classical calculations based on the mean squared displacement. We thus designed the AnDi challenge, an open community effort to objectively assess the performance of conventional and novel methods. We developed a python library for generating simulated datasets according to the most popular theoretical models of diffusion. We evaluated 16 methods over 3 different tasks and 3 different dimensions, involving anomalous exponent inference, model classification, and trajectory segmentation. Our analysis provides the first assessment of methods for anomalous diffusion in a variety of realistic conditions of trajectory length and noise. Furthermore, we compared the prediction provided by these methods for several experimental datasets. The results of this study further highlight the role that anomalous diffusion has in defining the biological function while revealing insight into the current state of the field and providing a benchmark for future developers.