Enhanced prediction of atrial fibrillation and mortality among patients with congenital heart disease using nationwide register based medical hospital data and neural networks
Kok Wai Giang, Saga Helgadottir, Mikael Dellborg, Giovanni Volpe, Zacharias Mandalenakis
European Heart Journal – Digital Health (2021)
Aims: To improve short-and long-term predictions of mortality and atrial fibrillation (AF) among patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) from a nationwide population using neural networks (NN).
Methods and results: The Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register were used to identify all patients with CHD born from 1970 to 2017. A total of 71 941 CHD patients were identified and followed-up from birth until the event or end of study in 2017. Based on data from a nationwide population, a NN model was obtained to predict mortality and AF. Logistic regression (LR) based on the same data was used as a baseline comparison. Of 71 941 CHD patients, a total of 5768 died (8.02%) and 995 (1.38%) developed AF over time with a mean follow-up time of 16.47 years (standard deviation 12.73 years). The performance of NN models in predicting the mortality and AF was higher than the performance of LR regardless of the complexity of the disease, with an average area under the receiver operating characteristic of >0.80 and >0.70, respectively. The largest differences were observed in mortality and complexity of CHD over time.
Conclusion: We found that NN can be used to predict mortality and AF on a nationwide scale using data that are easily obtainable by clinicians. In addition, NN showed a high performance overall and, in most cases, with better performance for prediction as compared with more traditional regression methods.