The Cognitive Connectome in Healthy Aging published in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Age-independent cognitive connectome in the whole cohort.
The Cognitive Connectome in Healthy Aging
Eloy Garcia-Cabello, Lissett Gonzalez-Burgos, Joana B. Pereira, Juan Andres Hernández-Cabrera, Eric Westman, Giovanni Volpe, José Barroso, & Daniel Ferreira
Front. Aging Neurosci. 13, 530 (2021)
doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2021.694254

Objectives: Cognitive aging has been extensively investigated using both univariate and multivariate analyses. Sophisticated multivariate approaches such as graph theory could potentially capture unknown complex associations between multiple cognitive variables. The aim of this study was to assess whether cognition is organized into a structure that could be called the “cognitive connectome,” and whether such connectome differs between age groups.

Methods: A total of 334 cognitively unimpaired individuals were stratified into early-middle-age (37–50 years, n = 110), late-middle-age (51–64 years, n = 106), and elderly (65–78 years, n = 118) groups. We built cognitive networks from 47 cognitive variables for each age group using graph theory and compared the groups using different global and nodal graph measures.

Results: We identified a cognitive connectome characterized by five modules: verbal memory, visual memory—visuospatial abilities, procedural memory, executive—premotor functions, and processing speed. The elderly group showed reduced transitivity and average strength as well as increased global efficiency compared with the early-middle-age group. The late-middle-age group showed reduced global and local efficiency and modularity compared with the early-middle-age group. Nodal analyses showed the important role of executive functions and processing speed in explaining the differences between age groups.

Conclusions: We identified a cognitive connectome that is rather stable during aging in cognitively healthy individuals, with the observed differences highlighting the important role of executive functions and processing speed. We translated the connectome concept from the neuroimaging field to cognitive data, demonstrating its potential to advance our understanding of the complexity of cognitive aging.

Subtypes of Brain Atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease published in Front. Neurol.

Subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease display distinct network abnormalities extending beyond their pattern of brain atrophy

Subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease display distinct network abnormalities extending beyond their pattern of brain atrophy
Daniel Ferreira, Joana B. Pereira, Giovanni Volpe & Eric Westman
Frontiers in Neurology 10, 524 (2019)
DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00524

Different subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with characteristic distributions of neurofibrillary tangles and corresponding brain atrophy patterns have been identified using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the underlying biological mechanisms that determine this differential expression of neurofibrillary tangles are still unknown. Here, we applied graph theoretical analysis to structural MRI data to test the hypothesis that differential network disruption is at the basis of the emergence of these AD subtypes. We studied a total of 175 AD patients and 81 controls. Subtyping was done using the Scheltens’ scale for medial temporal lobe atrophy, the Koedam’s scale for posterior atrophy, and the Pasquier’s global cortical atrophy scale for frontal atrophy. A total of 89 AD patients showed a brain atrophy pattern consistent with typical AD; 30 patients showed a limbic-predominant pattern; 29 patients showed a hippocampal-sparing pattern; and 27 showed minimal atrophy. We built brain structural networks from 68 cortical regions and 14 subcortical gray matter structures for each AD subtype and for the controls, and we compared between-group measures of integration, segregation, and modular organization. At the global level, modularity was increased and differential modular reorganization was detected in the four subtypes. We also found a decrease of transitivity in the typical and hippocampal-sparing subtypes, as well as an increase of average local efficiency in the minimal atrophy and hippocampal-sparing subtypes. We conclude that the AD subtypes have a distinct signature of network disruption associated with their atrophy patterns and further extending to other brain regions, presumably reflecting the differential spread of neurofibrillary tangles. We discuss the hypothetical emergence of these subtypes and possible clinical implications.